I will depend on oracle documentation to describe these parameter :
SGA_MAX_SIZE sets the overall amount of memory the SGA can consume but is not dynamic.
The SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter is the max allowable size to resize the SGA Memory area parameters. If the SGA_TARGET is set to some value then the Automatic Shared Memory Management (ASMM) is enabled, the SGA_TARGET value can be adjusted up to the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter, not more than SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter value.
MEMORY_TARGET & MEMORY_MAX_TARGET
you can manage SGA and PGA together rather than managing them separately.
If you set SGA_TARGET, SGA_MAX_SIZE and PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET to 0 and set MEMORY_TARGET (and optionally MEMORY_MAX_TARGET) to non zero value, Oracle will manage both SGA components and PGA together within the limit specified by you.
If MEMORY_TARGET is set to 1024MB, Oracle will manage SGA and PGA components within itself.
If MEMORY_TARGET is set to non zero value:
- SGA_TARGET, SGA_MAX_SIZE and PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET are set to 0, 60% of memory mentioned in MEMORY_TARGET is allocated to SGA and rest 40% is kept for PGA.
- SGA_TARGET and PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET are set to non-zero values, these values will be considered minimum values.
- SGA_TARGET is set to non zero value and PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET is not set. Still these values will be autotuned and PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET will be initialized with value of (MEMORY_TARGET-SGA_TARGET).
- PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET is set and SGA_TARGET is not set. Still both parameters will be autotunes. SGA_TARGET will be initialized to a value of (MEMORY_TARGET-PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET).
You can have some Description On http://support.oracle.com