role vs rolebinding in kubernetes

You need to know the difference between

  • Role.
  • Rolebinding.
  • ClusterRole.

Please refer the Kubernetes documentation here

A Role always sets permissions within a particular namespace; when you create a Role, you have to specify the namespace it belongs in.

ClusterRole, by contrast, is a non-namespaced resource. The resources have different names (Role and ClusterRole) because a Kubernetes object always has to be either namespaced or not namespaced; it can’t be both.

A rolebinding is namespace scoped and clusterrolebinding is cluster scoped i.e across all namespace.

ClusterRoles and ClusterRoleBindings are useful in the following cases:

  1. Give permissions for non-namespaced resources like nodes
  2. Give permissions for resources in all the namespaces of a cluster
  3. Give permissions for non-resource endpoints like /healthz

A RoleBinding can also reference a ClusterRole to grant the permissions defined in that ClusterRole to resources inside the RoleBinding’s namespace. This kind of reference lets you define a set of common roles across your cluster, then reuse them within multiple namespaces.


Create a Role for the dev User

  1. Create a role spec file role.yaml
kind: Role
  namespace: beebox-mobile
  name: pod-reader
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["pods", "pods/log"]
  verbs: ["get", "watch", "list"]

2. Save and exit the file by pressing Escape followed by :wq.

3. apply the role.

kubectl apply -f file-name.yml

Bind the Role to the dev User and Verify Your Setup Works

  1. Create the RoleBinding spec file:
kind: RoleBinding
  name: pod-reader
  namespace: beebox-mobile
- kind: User
  name: dev
  kind: Role
  name: pod-reader

2. Apply the role, by running

kubectl apply -f file-name.yml



Backing up and Restoring Kubernetes Data in etcd

Backups are an important part of any resilient system. Kubernetes is no exception. In this post , I will show you how to backup/restore kubernetes data.

Back Up the etcd Data

  1. Look up the value for the key in the etcd cluster:
ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl get \
  --endpoints= \
  --cacert=/home/cloud_user/etcd-certs/etcd-ca.pem \
  --cert=/home/cloud_user/etcd-certs/etcd-server.crt \

2. Back up etcd using etcdctl and the provided etcd certificates:

ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl snapshot save /home/cloud_user/etcd_backup.db \
  --endpoints= \
  --cacert=/home/cloud_user/etcd-certs/etcd-ca.pem \
  --cert=/home/cloud_user/etcd-certs/etcd-server.crt \

3. Reset etcd by removing all existing etcd data

Note: you don’t have to do this step if this is production, I am only doing this to show how to restore the data.

sudo systemctl stop etcd
sudo rm -rf /var/lib/etcd

Restore the etcd Data from the Backup

  1. Restore the etcd data from the backup (this command spins up a temporary etcd cluster, saving the data from the backup file to a new data directory in the same location where the previous data directory was):
sudo ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl snapshot restore /home/cloud_user/etcd_backup.db \
  --initial-cluster etcd-restore= \
  --initial-advertise-peer-urls \
  --name etcd-restore \
  --data-dir /var/lib/etcd

2. Set ownership on the new data directory

sudo chown -R etcd:etcd /var/lib/etcd

3. Start etcd

sudo systemctl start etcd

4. Verify the restored data is present by looking up the value for the key again:

ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl get \
  --endpoints= \
  --cacert=/home/cloud_user/etcd-certs/etcd-ca.pem \
  --cert=/home/cloud_user/etcd-certs/etcd-server.crt \



Upgrade k8s using kubeadm

First, upgrade the control plane node

Drain the control plane node.

kubectl drain master-node-name --ignore-daemonsets

Upgrade kubeadm.

sudo apt-get update && \
sudo apt-get install -y --allow-change-held-packages kubeadm=version

kubeadm version

Plan the upgrade.

sudo kubeadm upgrade plan v-version (for example v1.24.2)

Upgrade the control plane components.

sudo kubeadm upgrade apply v1.22.2

Upgrade kubelet and kubectl on the control plane node.

sudo apt-get update && \
sudo apt-get install -y --allow-change-held-packages kubelet=version kubectl=version 

Restart kubelet.

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart kubelet

Uncordon the control plane node.

kubectl uncordon master-node-name

Verify that the control plane is working

Note:- you should not perform upgrades on all worker nodes at the same time. Make sure enough nodes are available at any given time to provide uninterrupted service.

Worker nodes

Run the following on the control plane node to drain worker node 1:

kubectl drain worker1-node-name --ignore-daemonsets --force

Log in to the first worker node, then Upgrade kubeadm.

sudo apt-get update && \ sudo apt-get install -y --allow-change-held-packages kubeadm=version

Upgrade the kubelet configuration on the worker node.

sudo kubeadm upgrade node

Upgrade kubelet and kubectl on the worker node.

sudo apt-get update && \ sudo apt-get install -y --allow-change-held-packages kubelet=version kubectl=verion

Restart kubelet.

sudo systemctl daemon-reload 
sudo systemctl restart kubelet

From the control plane node, uncordon worker node 1.

kubectl uncordon worker1-node-name

Repeat the upgrade process for worker nodes.



k8s management tools

There is a variery of management tools that allow you to manage k8s and make your life much easier to proivde extra additional features.

  • kubectl

the official command line interface for k8s, this is the main method to interact you will use.

  • kubeadm

tools that allow you to setup control plane.

  • MiniKube

tool that runs a single-node Kubernetes cluster locally on your workstation for development and testing purposes.

Very simple tools you can find it here.

  • Helm

tool for managing packages of pre-configured Kubernetes resources. These packages are known as Helm charts.

Use Helm to:

  • Find and use popular software packaged as Kubernetes charts
  • Share your own applications as Kubernetes charts
  • Create reproducible builds of your Kubernetes applications
  • Intelligently manage your Kubernetes manifest files
  • Manage releases of Helm packages

  • Kompose

a tool to help Docker Compose users move to Kubernetes.

Use Kompose to:

  • Translate a Docker Compose file into Kubernetes objects
  • Go from local Docker development to managing your application via Kubernetes
  • Convert v1 or v2 Docker Compose yaml files or Distributed Application Bundles

and the last one which is kustomize.



Install k8s as one control plane and one worker node

The first thing you will need to do which is configure the two servers, either you can choose one of the following options:-

  • Cloud

Master Node Setup

Step #1

Create configuration file for containerd:

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/modules-load.d/containerd.conf

After the above step, you need to load the modules.

sudo modprobe overlay
sudo modprobe br_netfilter

Step #2

Set system configurations for Kubernetes networking

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/sysctl.d/99-kubernetes-cri.conf
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1

Apply new settings

sudo sysctl --system

Step #3

Install Containerd

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -y containerd

Step #4

Create default configuration file for containerd

sudo mkdir -p /etc/containerd

Generate default containerd configuration and save to the newly created default file

sudo containerd config default | sudo tee /etc/containerd/config.toml

Load the new configuration

sudo systemctl restart containerd
sudo systemctl status containerd

Step #5

Disable Swap

sudo swapoff -a

Step #6

Install dependency packages:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https curl

Download and add GPG key

curl -s | sudo apt-key add -

Add Kubernetes to repository list

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/kubernetes.list
deb kubernetes-xenial main

sudo apt-get update

Step #6

Install Kubernetes packages (Note: If you get a dpkg lock message, just wait a minute or two before trying the command again):

sudo apt-get install -y kubelet=1.24.0-00 kubeadm=1.24.0-00 kubectl=1.24.0-00

Just in case Turn off automatic updates

sudo apt-mark hold kubelet kubeadm kubectl

The above steps should be done on the worker node even if you have 3 or 4.

Initialize the Cluster

Initialize the Kubernetes cluster on the control plane node using kubeadm (Note: This is only performed on the Control Plane Node):

sudo kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr --kubernetes-version 1.24.0

Set kubectl access:

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You can test your cluster by run

kubectl get nodes

Install the Calico Network Add-On

On the control plane node, install Calico Networking

kubectl apply -f

Check status of the control plane node:

kubectl get nodes

Join the Worker Nodes to the Cluster

In the control plane node, create the token and copy the kubeadm join command (NOTE:The join command can also be found in the output from kubeadm init command):

kubeadm token create --print-join-command

Copy the output

Worker node Setup.

from the above command of Kubeadm join run it using sudo command.

In the control plane node, view cluster status (Note: You may have to wait a few moments to allow all nodes to become ready)

kubectl get nodes


Enjoy the DevOps


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infrastructure as code tools

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For this, I would like to share the tools I use for the perfect IaC tools that could be useful for someone




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